Acute Kidney FailureAcute Kidney Failure: Causes, Symptoms, Types, Stages and Treatments

Commonly asked questions about acute kidney failure:

What is Prerenal Acute Kidney Injury?

Acute renal failure or acute kidney injury occurs when a reduction in blood flow to the kidney causes a loss of kidney function. This is one of the most common types of acute kidney injury, as it can be a complication of almost any disease, condition, or medicine that decreases the normal amount of blood and fluid in the body.

What are the Symptoms for Prerenal Acute Kidney Injury?

Some of the most common symptoms in acute kidney failure include:

  • Dizziness
  • Dry mouth
  • Low blood pressure
  • Rapid heart rate
  • Slack skin
  • Thirst and weight loss
  • Low urine output

Many prerenal acute kidney failure patients that are critically ill require admission to an intensive care unit. Decreased perfusion can cause acute organ failure, such as cardiac or liver failure. Symptoms of heart failure include:

  • Dyspnea (shortness of breath)
  • Edema (fluid retention and swelling)
  • Venous engorgement

Symptoms of liver failure include:

  • Confusion, disorientation
  • Sweet odor

What is the Cause for Acute Kidney Failure?

Acute kidney energy has three main causes, and can create problems that are deadly.

  • Sudden or serious decrease in blood flow to the kidneys
  • Antibiotics: gentamicin, streptomycin
  • Pain medicines: naproxen, ibuprofen
  • Blood pressure medicines: ACE inhibitors
  • Dyes used in X-ray tests
  • Blockage of urine; kidney stones, tumors, an enlarged prostate gland or injuries all can cause a blockage.

Patients with long-term health problems are more likely than others to have a kidney problem from medicines.

Heavy blood loss, injury, or bad infection called sepsis can reduce blood flow to the kidneys. Dehydration is also harmful.

What is the Treatment for Acute Prerenal Kidney Failure?

Treatment balancing amount of fluids in blood: If acute kidney failure is caused by lack of fluids within your blood, the doctor may prescribe IV fluids. In other cases however, kidney failure may cause too much fluid, swelling arms and legs. If this is the case, your doctor may recommend medications such as diuretics to cause your body to expel extra fluids.

Medications to control blood potassium: If kidneys aren’t properly filtering potassium, your doctor may prescribe calcium, glucose or sodium polystyrene sulfonate in order to prevent high levels of potassium from accumulating. Too much potassium in the blood can cause irregular heartbeats and muscle weakness.

Medications to restore blood calcium levels: An infusion of calcium may be recommended if the levels of calcium in your blood drop too low.

Dialysis: In order to remove toxins from the blood, a temporary hemodialysis is used to remove toxins and excess fluids from your body while kidneys start to heal. Dialysis may also help remove excess potassium; a machine pumps blood out of the body through an artificial kidney and is used as a filter. Blood is then successfully restored.

How do I Prevent Acute Kidney Failure?

Although prevention for Acute Kidney Failure does not have direct causes, there are several precautions one can take in order to lessen its risks according to

  • Monitoring Urine and Creatinine levels: When monitored the ouptput of urine, patients can easily start noticing the first signs of acute kidney failure.
  • Nephrotoxic Drugs: Avoidance of these drugs and iodinated contrast agents reduces the risk of patients developing acute kidney disease.

What Drugs are Used to Treat Acute Prerenal Kidney Disease?

The following drugs and medications are in some way related to, or used in the treatment of Acute Kidney Disease.

  • Furosemide
  • Bumetanide

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